For decades, migrants from Africa have passed through Yemen to seek work in Saudi Arabia. Since 2010, more than 337,000 migrants and refugees have landed on Yemen's coastline from the Red Sea and the Gulf of Aden. Their numbers rose significantly, and then dipped in July 2013, most likely due to a Saudi crackdown on undocumented migrant workers, only to rise again in March 2014. A multi-million dollar trafficking and extortion racket has developed in Yemen based on the migrants' passage. Its locus is the hot and dry northern Yemeni border town of Haradh, where one government official estimated that trafficking and smuggling made up about 80 percent of the economy. “Yemen’s Torture Camps: Abuse of Migrants by Human Traffickers in a Climate of Impunity,” a Human Rights Watch report.